I'm trying to run a simple Hello World program from Arduino 1.6.5 from terminal. When I run it in Arduino IDE, it works good. When I'm trying to get it by avr-g++ I have hard way to figure out how to include all libraries - so far I got this script:

avr-g++ -Os -DF_CPU=16000000UL -mmcu=atmega328p -c -o main.o main.cpp 
avr-g++ -mmcu=atmega328p main.o -o main
avr-objcopy -O ihex -R .eeprom main main.hex
sudo avrdude -F -V -c arduino -p ATMEGA328P -P /dev/ttyACM1 -b 115200 -U flash:w:main.hex

First line (with both -I flags) compiles, but after running second line, I get:

main.o: In function `main':
main.cpp:(.text.startup+0xa): undefined reference to `LiquidCrystal::begin(unsigned char, unsigned char, unsigned char)'
main.cpp:(.text.startup+0x16): undefined reference to `Print::print(char const*)'
main.o: In function `_GLOBAL__sub_I_lcd':
main.cpp:(.text.startup+0x3a): undefined reference to `LiquidCrystal::LiquidCrystal(unsigned char, unsigned char, unsigned char, unsigned char, unsigned char, unsigned char)'
collect2: error: ld returned 1 exit status

How can I also include some libraries? I need the exact bash script.


1 Answer 1


I made a Makefile to compile the Blink program a little while back. It wasn't trivial.

# Simple Arduino Makefile
# Author: Nick Gammon
# Date: 18th March 2015

# where you installed the Arduino app
ARDUINO_DIR = C:/Documents and Settings/Nick/Desktop/arduino-1.0.6/

# various programs
CC = "$(ARDUINO_DIR)hardware/tools/avr/bin/avr-gcc"
CPP = "$(ARDUINO_DIR)hardware/tools/avr/bin/avr-g++"
AR = "$(ARDUINO_DIR)hardware/tools/avr/bin/avr-ar"
OBJ_COPY = "$(ARDUINO_DIR)hardware/tools/avr/bin/avr-objcopy"

MAIN_SKETCH = Blink.cpp

# compile flags for g++ and gcc

# may need to change these
F_CPU = 16000000
MCU = atmega328p

# compile flags
GENERAL_FLAGS = -c -g -Os -Wall -ffunction-sections -fdata-sections -mmcu=$(MCU) -DF_CPU=$(F_CPU)L -MMD -DUSB_VID=null -DUSB_PID=null -DARDUINO=106
CPP_FLAGS = $(GENERAL_FLAGS) -fno-exceptions

# location of include files
INCLUDE_FILES = "-I$(ARDUINO_DIR)hardware/arduino/cores/arduino" "-I$(ARDUINO_DIR)hardware/arduino/variants/standard"

# library sources
LIBRARY_DIR = "$(ARDUINO_DIR)hardware/arduino/cores/arduino/"


    $(CC) $(CC_FLAGS) $(INCLUDE_FILES) $(LIBRARY_DIR)avr-libc/malloc.c -o malloc.c.o
    $(CC) $(CC_FLAGS) $(INCLUDE_FILES) $(LIBRARY_DIR)avr-libc/realloc.c -o realloc.c.o
    $(CC) $(CC_FLAGS) $(INCLUDE_FILES) $(LIBRARY_DIR)WInterrupts.c -o WInterrupts.c.o
    $(CC) $(CC_FLAGS) $(INCLUDE_FILES) $(LIBRARY_DIR)wiring.c -o wiring.c.o
    $(CC) $(CC_FLAGS) $(INCLUDE_FILES) $(LIBRARY_DIR)wiring_analog.c -o wiring_analog.c.o
    $(CC) $(CC_FLAGS) $(INCLUDE_FILES) $(LIBRARY_DIR)wiring_digital.c -o wiring_digital.c.o
    $(CC) $(CC_FLAGS) $(INCLUDE_FILES) $(LIBRARY_DIR)wiring_pulse.c -o wiring_pulse.c.o
    $(CC) $(CC_FLAGS) $(INCLUDE_FILES) $(LIBRARY_DIR)wiring_shift.c -o wiring_shift.c.o
    $(CPP) $(CPP_FLAGS) $(INCLUDE_FILES) $(LIBRARY_DIR)HardwareSerial.cpp -o HardwareSerial.cpp.o
    $(CPP) $(CPP_FLAGS) $(INCLUDE_FILES) $(LIBRARY_DIR)IPAddress.cpp -o IPAddress.cpp.o
    $(CPP) $(CPP_FLAGS) $(INCLUDE_FILES) $(LIBRARY_DIR)main.cpp -o main.cpp.o
    $(CPP) $(CPP_FLAGS) $(INCLUDE_FILES) $(LIBRARY_DIR)new.cpp -o new.cpp.o
    $(CPP) $(CPP_FLAGS) $(INCLUDE_FILES) $(LIBRARY_DIR)Print.cpp -o Print.cpp.o
    $(CPP) $(CPP_FLAGS) $(INCLUDE_FILES) $(LIBRARY_DIR)Stream.cpp -o Stream.cpp.o
    $(CPP) $(CPP_FLAGS) $(INCLUDE_FILES) $(LIBRARY_DIR)Tone.cpp -o Tone.cpp.o
    $(CPP) $(CPP_FLAGS) $(INCLUDE_FILES) $(LIBRARY_DIR)USBCore.cpp -o USBCore.cpp.o
    $(CPP) $(CPP_FLAGS) $(INCLUDE_FILES) $(LIBRARY_DIR)WMath.cpp -o WMath.cpp.o
    $(CPP) $(CPP_FLAGS) $(INCLUDE_FILES) $(LIBRARY_DIR)WString.cpp -o WString.cpp.o
    rm core.a
    $(AR) rcs core.a malloc.c.o
    $(AR) rcs core.a realloc.c.o
    $(AR) rcs core.a WInterrupts.c.o
    $(AR) rcs core.a wiring.c.o
    $(AR) rcs core.a wiring_analog.c.o
    $(AR) rcs core.a wiring_digital.c.o
    $(AR) rcs core.a wiring_pulse.c.o
    $(AR) rcs core.a wiring_shift.c.o
    $(AR) rcs core.a CDC.cpp.o
    $(AR) rcs core.a HardwareSerial.cpp.o
    $(AR) rcs core.a HID.cpp.o
    $(AR) rcs core.a IPAddress.cpp.o
    $(AR) rcs core.a main.cpp.o
    $(AR) rcs core.a new.cpp.o
    $(AR) rcs core.a Print.cpp.o
    $(AR) rcs core.a Stream.cpp.o
    $(AR) rcs core.a Tone.cpp.o
    $(AR) rcs core.a USBCore.cpp.o
    $(AR) rcs core.a WMath.cpp.o
    $(AR) rcs core.a WString.cpp.o
    $(CC) -Os -Wl,--gc-sections -mmcu=$(MCU) -o $(MAIN_SKETCH).elf $(MAIN_SKETCH).o core.a -lm
    $(OBJ_COPY) -O ihex -j .eeprom --set-section-flags=.eeprom=alloc,load --no-change-warnings --change-section-lma .eeprom=0 $(MAIN_SKETCH).elf $(MAIN_SKETCH).eep
    $(OBJ_COPY) -O ihex -R .eeprom $(MAIN_SKETCH).elf $(MAIN_SKETCH).hex

I basically did this by observing what the IDE does (as Ignacio Vazquez-Abrams suggested) and replicated it. Now to add libraries you have to add even more steps.

  • It doesn't work well for me, even if i change everything. Linux can't find malloc.c in files. Aug 31, 2015 at 10:20
  • You must be able to find them, as Ignacio Vazquez-Abrams suggested. Turn on verbose compiling, do a compile, and see where the IDE finds them.
    – Nick Gammon
    Aug 31, 2015 at 20:31
  • Ok, I found them. Thanks. I'll post tomorrow results. Aug 31, 2015 at 21:50

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge you have read our privacy policy.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.