This solution only actually uses one pin, but only works with simple things like push buttons (which are either open, or closed).
Connect a (different) resistor in series (end-to-end) with each switch. Connect the loose end of each resistor together to +5V. Connect the loose end of those two switches together, then via another resistor to ground. Where the two switches meet, connect them to an analog pin on your Arduino.
For example, you might use a 20k resistor with button A, and a 10k resistor with button B, and a 10k resistor connected to ground. They should be pretty close to the same value, and at least 1k each.
Use the ReadAnalogVoltage sketch to measure the voltage with different combinations of button presses (no button pressed, A, B, A+B), then, in your final sketch, you can compare the value read with the values in this table - pick the closest one, because actual readings may vary slightly. For the resistors above, you should get about: (no button = 0v; A=1.7v, B=2.5v, both 3v). Sort these numerically (which in this case they already are), and work out the values exactly between each pair (up to 0.85 is closest to 0=> no button; else up to 2.1=> button A; else up to 2.75 is closest to B; otherwise, both are pressed.
The circuit described looks like this:
The wire leading off to the right goes to the analog pin on the Arduino. Switch A is on the left.
The results can be used either in a table, with a loop, or in an if/else if statement (I used this technique on a 12-key keypad, so the list was a lot longer).
Read up about voltage dividers https://learn.sparkfun.com/tutorials/voltage-dividers and, for both buttons being pressed at the same time, resistors in parallel https://learn.sparkfun.com/tutorials/series-and-parallel-circuits