Simulating a microcontroller's program is common, but not as part of a circuit, unless you're into Systems on Chips.
Model the micro interfaces and simulate the peripherals separately
Analog systems cannot be modelled accurately by hand calculations alone, therefore simulation is often a necessary step (on top of that, real circuits might behave differently from the model). Non-programmable digital systems are deterministic in their behaviour, but only if the interfaces are correct - tight specifications on impedances and such often mean simulation is required here as well. Generally speaking, for both simulation becomes a must when the system is not dead simple. Microcontrollers on the other hand are sufficiently deterministic not to require any simulation: they do what they're told, except in very very very rare cases (single event upsets from radiation for example). Now, what they're told might allow glitches to happen, but that's a different story*. Therefore, usually the analog, or digital circuits around a microcontroller would be given equivalent interfaces based on the microcontroller's behaviour and physical specifications, and simulated separately.
*: As the code becomes more and more complex, it gets more and more difficult to follow what the microcontroller might do. Unexpected glitches may arise from e.g. concurrent access (though I can't say this is common in the micro realm), or insufficient resources (that is why dynamic allocation [malloc,new] are highly discouraged, so that the resources allocation is known at compilation time) etc. That's usually why tests are required, and step-by-step debugging is used as a means to locate any error that arises. But inherently, microcontrollers are highly predictable and except in certain cases, it is not worth it to go through simulation (do not mix up simulations and tests, tests are always required!).
Advantages of microcontroller simulators
However, microcontrollers simulators do exist. They are particularly helpful to watch what happens inside the microcontroller when the code executes step by step: call stack, watches on variables, interrupt vectors etc. This can also be done on the actual hardware using in circuit debuggers, but simulators are cheaper and are also good to save on EEPROM erase/write cycles and to avoid damaging your micro if you are afraid that the devices around it might be incorrectly configured (some controllers are very expensive, especially if they are qualified for medical, military or aerospace applications). I have seen such ICD's and simulators for Microchip PICs (MPLABX), but there must be equivalents for AVR (the micro which is on the Arduino's), or perhaps even integrated in an arduino-friendly environment (though I doubt it). You might want to take a look here.
If you've got deep pockets: mixed signal simulators
Finally, there are mixed signal simulators which allow you to simulate analog, programmable and non-programmable digital circuits alike; one component will have an analog SPICE model, another a VHDL model, and ADC/DAC blocks will be added automatically by the simulator between those devices depending on the logic input/output technology you specify. Those are extremely expensive (the one I used is Cadence Virtuoso), you don't want to do that unless you're doing an integrated circuit or something critical.
P.S: DesignSpark PCB v3 has LTspice in it. Never tried that feature in there though, I used to use LTspice directly.
Note that your opening "QUCS is the only open source software [...]" is wrong. There are plenty of simulators out there which are open source. I agree QUCS is a very user-friendly one though.