I am working on similar project that uses internet to communicate with external device (mobile). I am reading data from sensors and passing them over the web with web sockets. I am using Arduino Yun for this project and Spacebrew (for web sockets communication). It's very interesting approach but quite a challenge in some cases. You will probably run into asynchronous/synchronous problem, which in my case lead me to running some Python scripts on Yun triggered from Processing code. I am currently running Spacebrew server on my VPN, so I can connect my Yun left at home and use my iphone from everywhere to get the readings.
It's also worth mentioning Yun comes with pre-installed Temboo library, which is great starting point for web communication. The configuration is really easy and quick. You will also find official documentation very handy and easy to understand. It's really great starting point for experimenting with web-like applications integrated with Arduino Yun.
Spacebrew is an open, dynamically re-routable software toolkit for choreographing interactive spaces. Or, in other words, a simple way to connect interactive things to one another. Every element you hook up to the system can subscribe to, and publish data feeds.
This repo contains the Spacebrew Library for Python along with documentation and example apps.
The Spacebrew Yun library features two main components - a set of python scripts that run on the linino, and a library that runs on the atmel chip. You find there information how to install both of these components so that you can connect to Spacebrew from an Arduino sketch.
Yun has also build in Temboo library, it's a great way to start experimenting, once you prove the concept you can start narrowing your environment and moving away if you don't want to use 3rd parties software.
The Temboo Library makes it easy to connect to over 100 web-based resources and services with Processing. Currently you can find libraries for Android, Arduino, iOS, Java, Node.js, PHP, Processing, Python, REST API, Ruby, Twyla
You can also run node.js on the Yun itself, here's good article and some packages ready to install:
What is Bridge library for Arduino Yun?
You also asked about Bridge library. As you know Yun has two processors on board, one is running your Processing code, the other one has Linux on it (Linino). Bridge basically simplifies communication between them so they can "talk" to eachother, more information here:
(Taken from arduino.cc documentation:)
The Arduino Yún has two processors on board. One is an ATmega32U4 like on the Arduino Leonardo. The other is an Atheros 9331, running Linux and the OpenWRT wireless stack, which enables the board to connect to WiFi and Ethernet networks. It is possible to call programs or custom scripts on the Linux system through the Arduino to connect with various internet services.
The Bridge library simplifies communication between the ATmega32U4 and the AR9331. It inherits from Stream, and many of the methods should be familiar from Serial and other derivatives of Stream.
Bridge commands from the 32U4 are interpreted by Python on the AR9331. Its role is to execute programs on the GNU/Linux side when asked by Arduino, provide a shared storage space for sharing data like sensor readings between the Arduino and the Internet, and receiving commands from the Internet and passing them directly to the Arduino.
Bridge allows communication in both directions, acting as an interface to the the Linino command line.
Where to start?
I would start with Temboo if I were you, it's a great learning curve and quite simple step to start. You will also learn and understand how the board works and how you can communicate with "external world". Once you have proof of concept, start experimenting with different libraries and improving the approach. Perhaps you will find Spacebrew more handy later or even discover different solutions.