1

In my project I need to connect more then 10 I2C sensors(MPU-6050) to Arduino Mega and an interrupt line for each sensor is essential. Since the Arduino Mega only has several interrupt slots (digital 2, 3, 21,29,19,18), how can it be achieved? Is that using a multiplexer every time I switch sensors and also switching interrupt lines solve the problem?

The code I'm using is Jeff Rowberg's MPU-6050 DMP example, which means interrupt line is essential and important, also very sensitive (a wrong change can cause sudden stop)..

// I2C device class (I2Cdev) demonstration Arduino sketch for MPU6050 class using DMP (MotionApps v2.0)
// 6/21/2012 by Jeff Rowberg <jeff@rowberg.net>
// Updates should (hopefully) always be available at https://github.com/jrowberg/i2cdevlib
//
// Changelog:
//      2013-05-08 - added seamless Fastwire support
//                 - added note about gyro calibration
//      2012-06-21 - added note about Arduino 1.0.1 + Leonardo compatibility error
//      2012-06-20 - improved FIFO overflow handling and simplified read process
//      2012-06-19 - completely rearranged DMP initialization code and simplification
//      2012-06-13 - pull gyro and accel data from FIFO packet instead of reading directly
//      2012-06-09 - fix broken FIFO read sequence and change interrupt detection to RISING
//      2012-06-05 - add gravity-compensated initial reference frame acceleration output
//                 - add 3D math helper file to DMP6 example sketch
//                 - add Euler output and Yaw/Pitch/Roll output formats
//      2012-06-04 - remove accel offset clearing for better results (thanks Sungon Lee)
//      2012-06-01 - fixed gyro sensitivity to be 2000 deg/sec instead of 250
//      2012-05-30 - basic DMP initialization working

/* ============================================
I2Cdev device library code is placed under the MIT license
Copyright (c) 2012 Jeff Rowberg

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
THE SOFTWARE.
===============================================
*/

// I2Cdev and MPU6050 must be installed as libraries, or else the .cpp/.h files
// for both classes must be in the include path of your project
#include "I2Cdev.h"

#include "MPU6050_6Axis_MotionApps20.h"
//#include "MPU6050.h" // not necessary if using MotionApps include file

// Arduino Wire library is required if I2Cdev I2CDEV_ARDUINO_WIRE implementation
// is used in I2Cdev.h
#if I2CDEV_IMPLEMENTATION == I2CDEV_ARDUINO_WIRE
    #include "Wire.h"
#endif

// class default I2C address is 0x68
// specific I2C addresses may be passed as a parameter here
// AD0 low = 0x68 (default for SparkFun breakout and InvenSense evaluation board)
// AD0 high = 0x69
//MPU6050 mpu;
MPU6050 mpu(0x69); // <-- use for AD0 high

/* =========================================================================
   NOTE: In addition to connection 3.3v, GND, SDA, and SCL, this sketch
   depends on the MPU-6050's INT pin being connected to the Arduino's
   external interrupt #0 pin. On the Arduino Uno and Mega 2560, this is
   digital I/O pin 2.
 * ========================================================================= */

/* =========================================================================
   NOTE: Arduino v1.0.1 with the Leonardo board generates a compile error
   when using Serial.write(buf, len). The Teapot output uses this method.
   The solution requires a modification to the Arduino USBAPI.h file, which
   is fortunately simple, but annoying. This will be fixed in the next IDE
   release. For more info, see these links:

   http://arduino.cc/forum/index.php/topic,109987.0.html
   http://code.google.com/p/arduino/issues/detail?id=958
 * ========================================================================= */



// uncomment "OUTPUT_READABLE_QUATERNION" if you want to see the actual
// quaternion components in a [w, x, y, z] format (not best for parsing
// on a remote host such as Processing or something though)
//#define OUTPUT_READABLE_QUATERNION

// uncomment "OUTPUT_READABLE_EULER" if you want to see Euler angles
// (in degrees) calculated from the quaternions coming from the FIFO.
// Note that Euler angles suffer from gimbal lock (for more info, see
// http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gimbal_lock)
//#define OUTPUT_READABLE_EULER

// uncomment "OUTPUT_READABLE_YAWPITCHROLL" if you want to see the yaw/
// pitch/roll angles (in degrees) calculated from the quaternions coming
// from the FIFO. Note this also requires gravity vector calculations.
// Also note that yaw/pitch/roll angles suffer from gimbal lock (for
// more info, see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gimbal_lock)
#define OUTPUT_READABLE_YAWPITCHROLL

// uncomment "OUTPUT_READABLE_REALACCEL" if you want to see acceleration
// components with gravity removed. This acceleration reference frame is
// not compensated for orientation, so +X is always +X according to the
// sensor, just without the effects of gravity. If you want acceleration
// compensated for orientation, us OUTPUT_READABLE_WORLDACCEL instead.
//#define OUTPUT_READABLE_REALACCEL

// uncomment "OUTPUT_READABLE_WORLDACCEL" if you want to see acceleration
// components with gravity removed and adjusted for the world frame of
// reference (yaw is relative to initial orientation, since no magnetometer
// is present in this case). Could be quite handy in some cases.
//#define OUTPUT_READABLE_WORLDACCEL

// uncomment "OUTPUT_TEAPOT" if you want output that matches the
// format used for the InvenSense teapot demo
//#define OUTPUT_TEAPOT



#define LED_PIN 13 // (Arduino is 13, Teensy is 11, Teensy++ is 6)
bool blinkState = false;

// MPU control/status vars
bool dmpReady = false;  // set true if DMP init was successful
uint8_t mpuIntStatus;   // holds actual interrupt status byte from MPU
uint8_t devStatus;      // return status after each device operation (0 = success, !0 = error)
uint16_t packetSize;    // expected DMP packet size (default is 42 bytes)
uint16_t fifoCount;     // count of all bytes currently in FIFO
uint8_t fifoBuffer[64]; // FIFO storage buffer

// orientation/motion vars
Quaternion q;           // [w, x, y, z]         quaternion container
VectorInt16 aa;         // [x, y, z]            accel sensor measurements
VectorInt16 aaReal;     // [x, y, z]            gravity-free accel sensor measurements
VectorInt16 aaWorld;    // [x, y, z]            world-frame accel sensor measurements
VectorFloat gravity;    // [x, y, z]            gravity vector
float euler[3];         // [psi, theta, phi]    Euler angle container
float ypr[3];           // [yaw, pitch, roll]   yaw/pitch/roll container and gravity vector

// packet structure for InvenSense teapot demo
uint8_t teapotPacket[14] = { '$', 0x02, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0, 0x00, 0x00, '\r', '\n' };



// ================================================================
// ===               INTERRUPT DETECTION ROUTINE                ===
// ================================================================

volatile bool mpuInterrupt = false;     // indicates whether MPU interrupt pin has gone high
void dmpDataReady() {
    mpuInterrupt = true;
}



// ================================================================
// ===                      INITIAL SETUP                       ===
// ================================================================

void setup() {
    // join I2C bus (I2Cdev library doesn't do this automatically)
    #if I2CDEV_IMPLEMENTATION == I2CDEV_ARDUINO_WIRE
        Wire.begin();
        TWBR = 24; // 400kHz I2C clock (200kHz if CPU is 8MHz)
    #elif I2CDEV_IMPLEMENTATION == I2CDEV_BUILTIN_FASTWIRE
        Fastwire::setup(400, true);
    #endif

    // initialize serial communication
    // (115200 chosen because it is required for Teapot Demo output, but it's
    // really up to you depending on your project)
    Serial.begin(115200);
    while (!Serial); // wait for Leonardo enumeration, others continue immediately

    // NOTE: 8MHz or slower host processors, like the Teensy @ 3.3v or Arduino
    // Pro Mini running at 3.3v, cannot handle this baud rate reliably due to
    // the baud timing being too misaligned with processor ticks. You must use
    // 38400 or slower in these cases, or use some kind of external separate
    // crystal solution for the UART timer.

    // initialize device
    Serial.println(F("Initializing I2C devices..."));
    mpu.initialize();

    // verify connection
    Serial.println(F("Testing device connections..."));
    Serial.println(mpu.testConnection() ? F("MPU6050 connection successful") : F("MPU6050 connection failed"));

    // wait for ready
    Serial.println(F("\nSend any character to begin DMP programming and demo: "));
    while (Serial.available() && Serial.read()); // empty buffer
    while (!Serial.available());                 // wait for data
    while (Serial.available() && Serial.read()); // empty buffer again

    // load and configure the DMP
    Serial.println(F("Initializing DMP..."));
    devStatus = mpu.dmpInitialize();

    // supply your own gyro offsets here, scaled for min sensitivity
    mpu.setXGyroOffset(220);
    mpu.setYGyroOffset(76);
    mpu.setZGyroOffset(-85);
    mpu.setZAccelOffset(1788); // 1688 factory default for my test chip

    // make sure it worked (returns 0 if so)
    if (devStatus == 0) {
        // turn on the DMP, now that it's ready
        Serial.println(F("Enabling DMP..."));
        mpu.setDMPEnabled(true);

        // enable Arduino interrupt detection
        Serial.println(F("Enabling interrupt detection (Arduino external interrupt 0)..."));
        attachInterrupt(0, dmpDataReady, RISING);
        mpuIntStatus = mpu.getIntStatus();

        // set our DMP Ready flag so the main loop() function knows it's okay to use it
        Serial.println(F("DMP ready! Waiting for first interrupt..."));
        dmpReady = true;

        // get expected DMP packet size for later comparison
        packetSize = mpu.dmpGetFIFOPacketSize();
    } else {
        // ERROR!
        // 1 = initial memory load failed
        // 2 = DMP configuration updates failed
        // (if it's going to break, usually the code will be 1)
        Serial.print(F("DMP Initialization failed (code "));
        Serial.print(devStatus);
        Serial.println(F(")"));
    }

    // configure LED for output
    pinMode(LED_PIN, OUTPUT);
}



// ================================================================
// ===                    MAIN PROGRAM LOOP                     ===
// ================================================================

void loop() {
    // if programming failed, don't try to do anything
    if (!dmpReady) return;

    // wait for MPU interrupt or extra packet(s) available
    while (!mpuInterrupt && fifoCount < packetSize) {
        // other program behavior stuff here
        // .
        // .
        // .
        // if you are really paranoid you can frequently test in between other
        // stuff to see if mpuInterrupt is true, and if so, "break;" from the
        // while() loop to immediately process the MPU data
        // .
        // .
        // .
    }

    // reset interrupt flag and get INT_STATUS byte
    mpuInterrupt = false;
    mpuIntStatus = mpu.getIntStatus();

    // get current FIFO count
    fifoCount = mpu.getFIFOCount();

    // check for overflow (this should never happen unless our code is too inefficient)
    if ((mpuIntStatus & 0x10) || fifoCount == 1024) {
        // reset so we can continue cleanly
        mpu.resetFIFO();
        Serial.println(F("FIFO overflow!"));

    // otherwise, check for DMP data ready interrupt (this should happen frequently)
    } else if (mpuIntStatus & 0x02) {
        // wait for correct available data length, should be a VERY short wait
        while (fifoCount < packetSize) fifoCount = mpu.getFIFOCount();

        // read a packet from FIFO
        mpu.getFIFOBytes(fifoBuffer, packetSize);

        // track FIFO count here in case there is > 1 packet available
        // (this lets us immediately read more without waiting for an interrupt)
        fifoCount -= packetSize;

        #ifdef OUTPUT_READABLE_QUATERNION
            // display quaternion values in easy matrix form: w x y z
            mpu.dmpGetQuaternion(&q, fifoBuffer);
            Serial.print("quat\t");
            Serial.print(q.w);
            Serial.print("\t");
            Serial.print(q.x);
            Serial.print("\t");
            Serial.print(q.y);
            Serial.print("\t");
            Serial.println(q.z);
        #endif

        #ifdef OUTPUT_READABLE_EULER
            // display Euler angles in degrees
            mpu.dmpGetQuaternion(&q, fifoBuffer);
            mpu.dmpGetEuler(euler, &q);
            Serial.print("euler\t");
            Serial.print(euler[0] * 180/M_PI);
            Serial.print("\t");
            Serial.print(euler[1] * 180/M_PI);
            Serial.print("\t");
            Serial.println(euler[2] * 180/M_PI);
        #endif

        #ifdef OUTPUT_READABLE_YAWPITCHROLL
            // display Euler angles in degrees
            mpu.dmpGetQuaternion(&q, fifoBuffer);
            mpu.dmpGetGravity(&gravity, &q);
            mpu.dmpGetYawPitchRoll(ypr, &q, &gravity);
            Serial.print("ypr\t");
            Serial.print(ypr[0] * 180/M_PI);
            Serial.print("\t");
            Serial.print(ypr[1] * 180/M_PI);
            Serial.print("\t");
            Serial.println(ypr[2] * 180/M_PI);
        #endif

        #ifdef OUTPUT_READABLE_REALACCEL
            // display real acceleration, adjusted to remove gravity
            mpu.dmpGetQuaternion(&q, fifoBuffer);
            mpu.dmpGetAccel(&aa, fifoBuffer);
            mpu.dmpGetGravity(&gravity, &q);
            mpu.dmpGetLinearAccel(&aaReal, &aa, &gravity);
            Serial.print("areal\t");
            Serial.print(aaReal.x);
            Serial.print("\t");
            Serial.print(aaReal.y);
            Serial.print("\t");
            Serial.println(aaReal.z);
        #endif

        #ifdef OUTPUT_READABLE_WORLDACCEL
            // display initial world-frame acceleration, adjusted to remove gravity
            // and rotated based on known orientation from quaternion
            mpu.dmpGetQuaternion(&q, fifoBuffer);
            mpu.dmpGetAccel(&aa, fifoBuffer);
            mpu.dmpGetGravity(&gravity, &q);
            mpu.dmpGetLinearAccel(&aaReal, &aa, &gravity);
            mpu.dmpGetLinearAccelInWorld(&aaWorld, &aaReal, &q);
            Serial.print("aworld\t");
            Serial.print(aaWorld.x);
            Serial.print("\t");
            Serial.print(aaWorld.y);
            Serial.print("\t");
            Serial.println(aaWorld.z);
        #endif

        #ifdef OUTPUT_TEAPOT
            // display quaternion values in InvenSense Teapot demo format:
            teapotPacket[2] = fifoBuffer[0];
            teapotPacket[3] = fifoBuffer[1];
            teapotPacket[4] = fifoBuffer[4];
            teapotPacket[5] = fifoBuffer[5];
            teapotPacket[6] = fifoBuffer[8];
            teapotPacket[7] = fifoBuffer[9];
            teapotPacket[8] = fifoBuffer[12];
            teapotPacket[9] = fifoBuffer[13];
            Serial.write(teapotPacket, 14);
            teapotPacket[11]++; // packetCount, loops at 0xFF on purpose
        #endif

        // blink LED to indicate activity
        blinkState = !blinkState;
        digitalWrite(LED_PIN, blinkState);
    }
}
1

One possible solution is to use a "global" interrupt pin which all the sensors use, and also normal GPIO pins to work out which interrupt has occurred.

Feed the interrupt signals into a multiple-input OR gate (if they are active HIGH) or a multuple-input AND gate (if they are active LOW). The output of that AND gate goes to a single INT pin. Each interrupt signal also goes to a normal IO pin. When the interrupt pin triggers the ISR can then look at the IO pins to determine which of the interrupt signals that triggered the interrupt.

enter image description here

For fastest operation use IO pins that are on the same port and use direct register reading for that port to see which bits are on and which are off.

  • This has little-to-no difference versus pin change interrupts other than using up an external interrupt. – Ignacio Vazquez-Abrams Apr 24 '15 at 13:32
  • 1
    You can also use four regular diodes instead of an or port. – Gerben Apr 24 '15 at 13:32
  • 1
    Good possible solution. remember to use digitalReadFast (or write the code yourself), instead of 10 Arduino's slow digitalRead. You probably get all the information you want from 2 reads. – user6569 Apr 24 '15 at 18:25
  • @Ignacio PC ints are slower – Majenko Apr 24 '15 at 18:49
  • 1
    @MichelKeijzers Zie slottechforum.com/slotinfo/Techstuff/… – Gerben Mar 9 '17 at 15:29
0

Just FYI, the interrupt is not essential. If you can write efficient code you can read an MPU(DMP) without it (UNO, been there, done that). But that is only for one MPU. I doubt if an UNO can keep up with 10, no idea about the faster processors. In any case, even with interrupts, I doubt if an UNO could keep up with 10. Keep googling and you will find a note how to change the sampling rate to slow the MPU down.

The code you referenced provides AHRS (Attitude Heading Reference System) - I would be real curious to see what projects needs 10 of those :) Sounds like fun.

  • I'm actually computer science students , currently doing research on medication area by using machine learning algorithms :) – Yank Apr 25 '15 at 0:23
  • unfortunately , I firstly tried using without interruption however, because of the behaviour of this MPU, without interruption will make the MPU 'unstable' , the FIFO cannot consume as I wanted , after several minutes MPU start oscillating and crazy. I have spend lots of hours on that but still , makes me lots of headache :) so I will still looking for the interrupting solution , but many thanks for your support ! – Yank Apr 25 '15 at 0:27
  • keep trying, like I said, I know it works :) One thing to do is clear the FIFO buffer every read (same as it does in case of an overflow). Since you are just reading, there is no requirement for your code to integrate, so even if your losing some data, it doesnt matter. – user6569 Apr 25 '15 at 0:35
  • shameless plug - keep an eye on spiked3.com - video demo coming soon with MPU-6050 and others on a UNO. I am finishing up some other parts of the code now, but that part is finished and working incredibly well. I'll try to put a preliminary demo video up later tonight. – user6569 Apr 25 '15 at 0:45
  • Is it?? I know I need to clear MPU buffer but I've tried every reset function listed in the library however it does not work , could you give me more details please I will be so pleased to see it ! – Yank Apr 25 '15 at 0:55

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.