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4 retag (since the retag priviledge is gone I have to go through suggested edits)
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#define CLR(x,y) (x &= (~(1 << y)) )
#define SET(x,y) (x |= (1 << y) )

void shiftOutFast(uint8_t dataPort, uint8_t dataBit, uint8_t clkPort, 
                  uint8_t clkBit, uint8_t bitOrder, uint8_t val) {
  for (uint8_t i = 0; i < 8; i++)  {
    if (bitOrder == LSBFIRST) {
      if (val & 0x01) {
        SET(dataPort, dataBit);
      } else {
        CLR(dataPort, dataBit);
      }
      val >>= 1;
    } else {    
      if (val & 0x80) {
        SET(dataPort, dataBit);
      } else {
        CLR(dataPort, dataBit);
      }
      val <<= 1;
    }   

    CLR(clkPort, clkBit);
    SET(clkPort, dataBitclkBit);
  }
}


#define dataPin 4
#define clockPin 5
#define dataPort PORTD
#define dataBit PORTD4
#define clockPort PORTD
#define clockBit PORTD5

void setup() {
  pinMode(dataPin, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(clockPin, OUTPUT);
}

void loop() {
  shiftOut(dataPin, clockPin, LSBFIRST, 0x55);
  delay(1);

  shiftOutFast(dataPort, dataBit, clockPort, clockBit, LSBFIRST, 0x5C);
  delay(1);  

  bool bitOrder = LSBFIRST;
  uint8_t val = 0x5C; 

  for (uint8_t i = 0; i < 8; i++)  {
    if (bitOrder == LSBFIRST) {
      if (val & 0x01) {
        SET(dataPort, dataBit);
      } else {
        CLR(dataPort, dataBit);
      }
      val >>= 1;
    } else {    
      if (val & 0x80) {
        SET(dataPort, dataBit);
      } else {
        CLR(dataPort, dataBit);
      }
      val <<= 1;
    }   

    CLR(clockPort, clockBit);
    SET(clockPort, clockBit);
  }
  delay(1);  
}
#define CLR(x,y) (x &= (~(1 << y)) )
#define SET(x,y) (x |= (1 << y) )

void shiftOutFast(uint8_t dataPort, uint8_t dataBit, uint8_t clkPort, 
                  uint8_t clkBit, uint8_t bitOrder, uint8_t val) {
  for (uint8_t i = 0; i < 8; i++)  {
    if (bitOrder == LSBFIRST) {
      if (val & 0x01) {
        SET(dataPort, dataBit);
      } else {
        CLR(dataPort, dataBit);
      }
      val >>= 1;
    } else {    
      if (val & 0x80) {
        SET(dataPort, dataBit);
      } else {
        CLR(dataPort, dataBit);
      }
      val <<= 1;
    }   

    CLR(clkPort, clkBit);
    SET(clkPort, dataBit);
  }
}


#define dataPin 4
#define clockPin 5
#define dataPort PORTD
#define dataBit PORTD4
#define clockPort PORTD
#define clockBit PORTD5

void setup() {
  pinMode(dataPin, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(clockPin, OUTPUT);
}

void loop() {
  shiftOut(dataPin, clockPin, LSBFIRST, 0x55);
  delay(1);

  shiftOutFast(dataPort, dataBit, clockPort, clockBit, LSBFIRST, 0x5C);
  delay(1);  

  bool bitOrder = LSBFIRST;
  uint8_t val = 0x5C; 

  for (uint8_t i = 0; i < 8; i++)  {
    if (bitOrder == LSBFIRST) {
      if (val & 0x01) {
        SET(dataPort, dataBit);
      } else {
        CLR(dataPort, dataBit);
      }
      val >>= 1;
    } else {    
      if (val & 0x80) {
        SET(dataPort, dataBit);
      } else {
        CLR(dataPort, dataBit);
      }
      val <<= 1;
    }   

    CLR(clockPort, clockBit);
    SET(clockPort, clockBit);
  }
  delay(1);  
}
#define CLR(x,y) (x &= (~(1 << y)) )
#define SET(x,y) (x |= (1 << y) )

void shiftOutFast(uint8_t dataPort, uint8_t dataBit, uint8_t clkPort, 
                  uint8_t clkBit, uint8_t bitOrder, uint8_t val) {
  for (uint8_t i = 0; i < 8; i++)  {
    if (bitOrder == LSBFIRST) {
      if (val & 0x01) {
        SET(dataPort, dataBit);
      } else {
        CLR(dataPort, dataBit);
      }
      val >>= 1;
    } else {    
      if (val & 0x80) {
        SET(dataPort, dataBit);
      } else {
        CLR(dataPort, dataBit);
      }
      val <<= 1;
    }   

    CLR(clkPort, clkBit);
    SET(clkPort, clkBit);
  }
}


#define dataPin 4
#define clockPin 5
#define dataPort PORTD
#define dataBit PORTD4
#define clockPort PORTD
#define clockBit PORTD5

void setup() {
  pinMode(dataPin, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(clockPin, OUTPUT);
}

void loop() {
  shiftOut(dataPin, clockPin, LSBFIRST, 0x55);
  delay(1);

  shiftOutFast(dataPort, dataBit, clockPort, clockBit, LSBFIRST, 0x5C);
  delay(1);  

  bool bitOrder = LSBFIRST;
  uint8_t val = 0x5C; 

  for (uint8_t i = 0; i < 8; i++)  {
    if (bitOrder == LSBFIRST) {
      if (val & 0x01) {
        SET(dataPort, dataBit);
      } else {
        CLR(dataPort, dataBit);
      }
      val >>= 1;
    } else {    
      if (val & 0x80) {
        SET(dataPort, dataBit);
      } else {
        CLR(dataPort, dataBit);
      }
      val <<= 1;
    }   

    CLR(clockPort, clockBit);
    SET(clockPort, clockBit);
  }
  delay(1);  
}
2 edited title
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Why doesn't my code work in a function do anything to I/O, yet works inline?

1
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