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The Arduino boards provide an analog input range of 0V to 5V which translates to 0 to 1023 integer values. The range is determined by the on-board ADC, which in the case of the Uno is a 10 bit ADC (2^10 = 1024).

Do any of the official boards have a larger (>10 bits) ADC? Do any boards provide a wider range of analog input values?

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why do you need more bits of resolution specifically? –  Jarrod Roberson Mar 24 at 17:36
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AVR-based Arduinos only have 10-bit ADCs, but the ATSAM3X in the Due has 12-bit ADCs. Additionally, it is possible to interface to higher-resolution external ADCs via I2C or SPI.

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Remember that more bits imply higher sensitivity to power supply various other sources of noise. –  jippie Mar 22 at 17:05
    
Could you please provide some references of external ADC chips that connect through I2C or SPI? –  jfpoilpret Mar 22 at 17:47
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How much accuracy do you really need? If it's just 1 or 2 extra bits of resolution you are after, you might be able to achieve that with a bit of oversampling.

Basically, you take a ton of readings and average them. It only works if there is at least a few mV of random noise in your signal or in your ADC, and if your input signal bandwidth is low enough to be averaging samples together.

Otherwise, go with a dedicated ADC chip.

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